The coloproctology is a subspecialty of General and Digestive System surgery that is dedicated to the study and treatment of the pathology of the colon, rectum and anus.
The epidemiological offspring of these diseases, as well as the growing complexity of the diagnostic and therapeutic proceedings, has forced the creation of multidisciplinary teams, composed of gastroenterologists, medical oncologists and radiation therapists, who, being directed by the colorectal surgeon (also called coloproctologist), work deeply in the study and treatment of the huge chapter of pathology that this area suffers from.
This subspecialty goes from the very important common oncologic problems (with the colon, rectal and anal cancers), the inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, mainly), functional problems as constipation and anal incontinence, pelvic floor pathology (evaluated and treated together with gynecologists and urologists), to the whole spectrum of anal problems (pilonidal sinus, hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fistulas and sexual transmission diseases)
The specificity of the different therapies for all these procedures conditioned, since the late years of the 19th century, the necessity of an exclusive dedication to this pathology. Beyond any doubt, the scientific evidence shows that the obtained results are dramatically different.
Sometimes, the Proctology is referred to as it was a distinct specialty. Proctology is the part of the Medicine that studies the diseases that occur in the rectum and anus. Although in some historic moments, and even nowadays in certain environments, is mentioned separately, applying scientific rigor it neither is separated nor isolated from Coloproctology.